The Father of Special Education

Jean Marc Gaspard Itard (April 24, 1774 – July 5, 1838) was a French physician , regarded as being the founder of oto-rhyno-laryngology, also known as Otolaryngology. He is also credited with describing the first case of Tourette’s syndrome and inventing the Eustachian catheter (also known the “Itard’s catheter”). Itard is noted for his work with deaf-mutes, and was one of the first to attempt the education  of mentally retarded children in a systematic fashion. He is especially famous for his work with Victor, the “Wild boy of Aveyron,” a feral child. Itard developed a special program, the first attempt at special education, to try to teach him language and empathy, which he considered the key attributes that separated human beings  from animals. Although his work with Victor was not entirely successful, it was useful in advancing our knowledge of the importance of early exposure to language as a form of communication in the development of spoken linguistic skills. While language itself, nor even emotion and empathy, may not be what separates us from animals, Itard’s work also contributed to that debate and to the conviction that there are essentially human qualities that are possessed even by those raised without contact with other human beings during their childhood.

Jean Marc Gaspard Itard went to Paris in 1796 to study medicine. After becoming an accomplished surgeon, Itard worked at the Paris insane asylum. He was interested in the study of training deaf-mutes, and took an interest in Victor, a boy at the asylum. Victor had been found in the woods around Saint-Sernin in southern France, an apparent “Wild Boy” with virtually no exposure to civilized society.

The Society of Observers of Man claimed the boy for observations. Phillipe Pinel, one of the five observers, delivered his report, saying that Victor was an incurable idiot with no chance for improvement or education. Itard disagreed with Pinel and went against the recommendations, keeping Victor in the asylum and personally training him.

Though never making the progress he had hoped, Itard’s techniques and  willingness to stand up for the cause of “Victor the Wild Boy” were very influential to the training and education programs of the time.

In 1825 Itard described the case of Madame de Dampierre who had a habit of shouting out obscene words during conversation. Sixty years later this case was cited as an example of what would become known as Tourette’s syndrome.

Victor of Aveyron

Victor of Aveyron (also known as the “Wild Boy of Aveyron”) was a boy who had apparently lived his entire childhood alone in the woods before being found wandering near Saint Sernin sur Rance, (near Toulouse) France in 1797. He was captured, but soon escaped. He was then captured again and kept in the care of a local woman for about a week before he escaped once more.

However, on January 8, 1800, he emerged from the forests on his own, perhaps habituated to human kindness after his second experience. His age was unknown but citizens of the village estimated that he was about twelve years old. His lack of speech, as well as his food preferences and the numerous scars on his body, indicated that he had been in the wild for the majority of his life. This remarkable situation came about at the end of the Enlightenment, when many were debating what exactly distinguished the human being from the animal. One of the prevailing opinions involved the ability to learn language; it was hoped that by studying the wild boy, they would learn the answer.

Despite the fact that he could hear, Victor was taken to the National Institute of the Deaf for the purpose of study. There, Itard took on the remarkable case as his own. Itard believed that two things separated humans from animals: empathy and language. He wanted to be the first person to fully civilize a wild child and attempted, primarily, to teach Victor to speak and show human emotion. He designed an educational plan for Victor:

1. To interest him in social life

2. To improve his awareness of external stimuli

3. To extend the range of his ideas

4. To teach him to speak

5. To teach him to communicate by using symbol systems

This program can be regarded as the first Individual Educational Plan (IEP) in special education.

Though initially successful—Victor showed significant progress, at least, in understanding language and reading simple words—he eventually slowed down to the point that Itard abandoned the experiment. The only words that Victor ever actually learned to speak were lait (milk) and Oh Dieu (oh God). Modern scholars now believe, partly by studying such feral children, that language acquisition must take place in a critical period of early childhood if it is to be successful.

Though Itard failed at teaching Victor language, he had a breakthrough in the realm of the emotions. Victor lived with Itard and his housekeeper Madame Garhar. One night while setting the table, Victor noticed Madame Gerhar crying over the loss of her husband. He stopped what he was doing and consoled her, thus showing empathy. Itard took this as a major breakthrough in the case, proving that the wild child was capable of human emotions. Itard concluded:

If we consider human intelligence at the period of earliest childhood man does not yet appear to rise above the level of the other animals. All his intellectual faculties are strictly confined to the narrow circle of his physical needs. It is upon himself alone that the operations of his mind are exercised. Education must then seize them and apply them to his instruction, that is to say to a new order of things which has no connection with his first needs. Such is the source of all knowledge, all mental progress, and the creations of the most sublime genius. Whatever degree of probability there may be in this idea, I only repeat it here as the point of departure on the path towards realization of this last aim (Itard 1801).

LEGACY


Itard’s medical research on the ear  and the diseases of the ear made him one of the founders of otolaryngology. Related to this was his work on the education of deaf mutes, for the continuation of which he bequeathed a sizable amount of money.

Even though Itard’s work with Victor, the feral child, had limited success, he proved that children with mental disabilities could make some degree of improvement. Itard is thus regarded as the founder of special education. A student of Itard’s, Edouard Seguin, immigrated to the United States in 1848, and became known as the teacher of “idiotic” children. Seguin’s student was Maria Montessori, who became one of the greatest educators of the twentieth century.

http://www.museumofdisability.org/original_pantheon_itard.asp

http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Jean_Marc_Gaspard_Itard

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2 Responses to The Father of Special Education

  1. IRR of R.A. 9442 Magna Carta for Persons with Disability as Amended, and For Other Purposes says:

    IRR OF REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9442,

    An Act Amending Republic Act No. 7277, Otherwise known as the
    “Magna Carta for Persons with Disability as Amended, and For Other Purposes”
    Granting Additional Privileges and Incentives and Prohibitions on Verbal,
    Non-Verbal Ridicule and Vilification Against Persons with Disability

    RULE I
    TITLE, PURPOSE AND CONSTRUCTION

    Section 1. Title – These Rules shall be known and cited as the Rules and Regulations Implementing Republic Act No. 9442, an Act Amending Republic Act No. 7277, Otherwise known as the “Magna Carta for Disabled Persons, and For Other Purposes” Granting Additional Privileges and Incentives and Prohibitions on Verbal, Non-verbal Ridicule and Vilification Against Persons with Disability.

    Section 2. Purpose – These Rules are promulgated to prescribe the procedures and guidelines for the implementation of Republic Act No. 9442 in order to facilitate compliance therewith and to achieve the objectives thereof.

    Section 3. Construction – These Rules shall be construed and applied in accordance with and in furtherance of the policies and objectives of the law. In case of doubt, the same shall be construed liberally and in favor of persons with disability.

    RULE II
    POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES

    Section 4. Policies and Objectives – It is the objective of Republic Act No. 9442 to provide persons with disability, the opportunity to participate fully into the mainstream of society by granting them at least twenty percent (20%) discount in all basic services. It is a declared policy of RA 7277 that persons with disability are part of Philippine society, and thus the State shall give full support to the improvement of their total well being and their integration into the mainstream of society. They have the same rights as other people to take their proper place in society. They should be able to live freely and as independently as possible. This must be the concern of everyone – the family, community and all government and non-government organizations. Rights of persons with disability must never be perceived as welfare services. Prohibitions on verbal, non-verbal ridicule and vilification against persons with disability shall always be observed at all times.

    RULE III
    DEFINITION OF TERMS

    Section 5. Definition of Terms. – For purposes of these Rules and Regulations, these terms are defined as follows:

    5.1. Persons with Disability – are those individuals defined under Section 4 of RA 7277 “An Act Providing for the Rehabilitation, Self-Development and Self-Reliance of Persons with Disability as amended and their integration into the Mainstream of Society and for Other Purposes”. This is defined as a person suffering from restriction or different abilities, as a result of a mental, physical or sensory impairment, to perform an activity in a manner or within the range considered normal for human being. Disability shall mean (1) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more psychological, physiological or anatomical function of an individual or activities of such individual; (2) a record of such an impairment; or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment.

    5.2. Exclusive Use or Enjoyment of Persons with Disability – refers to the discount privilege that can be availed only by persons with disability.

    5.3 Establishment – refers to business entities, private or public, duly authorized and recognized by law to operate.

    5.3.1 Hotel – refers to the building, edifice or premises or a completely independent part thereof, which is used for the regular reception, accommodation or lodging of travelers and tourists and the provision of services incidental thereto for a fee.

    5.4 Lodging Establishment – refers to those that charge daily, weekly, monthly rates or fees which include but not limited to the following:

    5.4.1 Tourist Inn – refers to lodging establishment catering to transients, which does not meet the minimum requirement of an economy hotel.

    5.4.2 Apartel – refers to building or edifice containing several independent and furnished or semi-furnished apartments, regularly leased to tourists and travelers for dwelling on a more or less long-term basis and offering basic services to its tenants, similar to hotels.

    5.4.3 Motorist Hotel – refers to any structure with several separate units, primarily located along the highway, with individual or common parking space, at which motorists may obtain lodging and in some instances, meals.

    5.4.4 Pension House – refers to a private, or family-operated tourist boarding house, tourist guest house or tourist lodging house, regularly catering to tourist, and/or traveler, containing several independent table rooms, providing common facilities such as toilets, bathrooms/showers, living and dining rooms and/or kitchen and where a combination of board and lodging may be provided.

    The term lodging establishment shall include lodging houses, which shall mean such establishments are regularly engaged in the hotel business, but which, nevertheless, are not registered, classified and licensed as hotels by reason of inadequate essential facilities and services. It also includes resort, which shall refer to any place or places with pleasant environment and atmosphere conducive to comfort, healthful relaxation and rest, offering food, sleeping accommodation and recreational facilities to the public for a fee or remuneration.

    5.4.5 Restaurant – refers to any establishment duly licensed by the government selling to the public, regular and special meals or menu. The discount shall be for the purchase of food drinks, beverages, dessert and other consumable items served by the establishments including value meals and other similar food counters, fast food, cooked food and short orders including take-outs.

    5.5 Sports and Recreational Centers – refers to any establishment offering sports recreational and amusement services with facilities such as but not limited to swimming pools, bowling alleys, golf courses, gyms, club houses, skating rinks and all other sports facilities. Recreational facilities include but not limited to Internet café, video games, and other similar amusement facilities.

    5.6 Medicines – refers to both prescription and non-prescription medicines and articles approved by Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD), Department of Health (DOH), which are intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in man.

    5.7 Medical Services – refers to health services as defined by Section 20 of Republic Act 7277, Otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Persons with Disability as amended, and for Other Purposes, which includes but not limited to the following:

    5.7.1 prevention of disability through immunization, nutrition, environmental protection and preservation, and genetic counseling, and early detection of disability and timely intervention to arrest disabling condition; and

    5.7.2 medical treatment and rehabilitation to include mobility assistive devices.

    5.8 Dental Services – refers to oral examination, cleaning, permanent and temporary filling, extractions and gum treatments, restoration, replacement or repositioning of teeth, or alteration of the alveolar or periodontium process of the maxilla and the mandible that are necessary for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a dental illness or injury.

    5.9 Residential Care/Group Home – refers to a facility, which provides twenty-four (24) hour resident group care for the physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being of persons with disability in a home life atmosphere; which is accredited by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and licensed by the concerned local government unit where the said residential care/group home is located.

    5.10 Residential Community or Retirement Village – refers to the type of housing facility which is generally horizontal in physical development and the unit covered by individual land title. The sub-types are the different options of house and lot packages which may include single detached, single attached, duplex or row house. The housing options are generally one up to three level structures and may be purely residential-farm estate or a residential component of a resort or leisure complex. The units may be for lease or for sale to retirees.

    5.11 Basic Necessities – refers to rice, corn, bread, fresh, dried and canned fish and other marine products, fresh pork, beef and poultry meat, fresh eggs, fresh and processed milk, fresh vegetables, root crops, coffee, sugar, cooking oil, salt, laundry soap, detergents, firewood, charcoal, candles and other commodities as maybe classified by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Department of Agriculture (DA).

    5.12 Prime Commodities – refers to fresh fruits, flour, dried, processed and canned pork, beef and poultry, meat, dairy products not falling under basic necessities; noodles, onions, garlic, herbicides, poultry, swine and cattle feeds, veterinary products for poultry, swine and cattle feeds, veterinary products for poultry, swine and cattle, paper, school supplies, nipa shingle, plyboard, construction nails, batteries, electrical supplies, lightbulbs, steel wire and other commodities that may be classified by the Department of Trade and Industry (DT) and the Department of Agriculture (DA).

    5.13 Benefactor – refers to any person whether related to the person with disability or not who takes care of him/her as a dependent.

    5.14 Dependent – refers to a person with disability, minor or of legal age, who is a Filipino citizen and who may or may not be related to his benefactor and who is living with and dependent upon such benefactor for his/her chief support.

    RULE IV
    PRIVILEGES AND INCENTIVES FOR THE PERSONS WITH DISABILITY

    Section 6. Other Privileges and Incentives

    Persons with disability shall be entitled to the following:

    6.1 Discounts from All Establishments – At least twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of all services in hotels and similar lodging establishments, restaurants and recreation centers for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability.

    6.1.a Hotels and Similar Lodging Establishments – The discount shall be for room accommodation and other amenities offered by the establishment such as but not limited to massage parlor, sauna bath, food, drinks and other services offered.

    The discount will only apply to persons with disability. No discount will be given to companion without disability.

    6.1.b Restaurant – The discount shall be for the purchase of food drinks, beverages, dessert and other consumable items served by the establishments including value meals and other similar food counters, fast food, cooked food and short orders including take-outs. To safeguard the establishments from abuse of this privilege, the orders should be limited only to persons with disability personal consumption.

    For a group of people with a person with disability, only the proportionate share of person with disability will be given discount. In case of banquet and catering services especially in seminars and other similar activities the discount will apply only to customers with disability.

    6.1.c Sports and Recreational Centers – The discount shall apply to all charges in the utilization of the services including rentals of all facilities and equipments and other accessories and gadgets relative to the enjoyment of the sports and recreational services. The discount shall also include rooms or halls for PWDs’ seminars, art workshops and other persons with disability activities.

    6.1.d Purchase of Medicine – at least twenty percent (20%) discount on the purchase of medicine for the exclusive use and enjoyment of persons with disability. All drug stores, hospital, pharmacies, clinics and other similar establishments selling medicines are required to provide at least twenty percent (20%) discount subject to the guidelines issued by DOH and PHILHEALTH.

    6.2 Admission Fees Privilege. – A minimum of at lease twenty percent (20%) discount on admission fees charged by theaters, cinema houses and concert halls, circuses, carnivals, and other similar places of culture, leisure and amusement such as but not limited to museum, exhibit halls, fairs, parks like theme parks and shall be granted for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability.

    6.3 Medical and Dental Privileges in Government Facilities – The person with disability shall be provided at least twenty percent (20%) discounts on medical and dental services including diagnostic and laboratory fees such as, but not limited to, x-rays, computerized tomography scans and blood tests in all government facilities, subject to guidelines to be issued by DOH in coordination with the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHILHEALTH).

    6.4 Medical and Dental Privileges in Private Facilities – The person with disability shall be provided at least twenty percent (20%) discounts on medical and dental services including diagnostic and laboratory fees such as, but not limited to, x-rays, computerized tomography scans and blood tests including professional fees of attending doctors in all private hospitals and medical facilities subject to guidelines to be issued by DOH in coordination with the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PHILHEALTH).

    6.5 Air and Sea Transportation Privileges – At least twenty percent (20%) discounts in fare for domestic air, and sea travel based on the actual fare except promotional fare. If the promotional fare discount is higher than the twenty percent (20%) discounts privilege, the persons with disability may choose the promotional fare and should no longer be entitled to the twenty percent (20%) discounts privilege.

    6.5.1 The Maritime Industry Authority (MARINA) shall issue corresponding circulars or directives to the shipping industry for the implementation of these rules to ensure compliance herewith, as well as requirements to ship operators/owners to disseminate information on the benefits of the persons with disability by posters, handbills or pamphlets on board vessels.

    6.5.2 The Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) shall issue corresponding guidelines, circulars or directives related to air transport services and shall disseminate such information as mentioned above.

    6.6 Land Transportation Privileges – At least twenty percent (20%) discounts in bus fares such as ordinary, aircon fares and on public railways such as LRT, MRT, PNR, and such other similar infrastructure that will be constructed, established and operated by public or private entity. Toll fees of skyways and expressways are likewise subject to at least twenty percent (20%) discounts, however, this privilege can be availed only by a person with disability owning the vehicle.

    The Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC), Light Rail Transit Authority (LRTA), Philippine National Railways (PNR), Toll Regulatory Board (TRB) and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) shall issue corresponding circulars or directives to the public land transport sector for the implementation of these rules to ensure compliance herewith, as well as requirements to these operators to disseminate information on the benefits of the persons with disability by posters, handbills or pamphlets on board their vehicles.

    6.7 Educational Privileges. – Educational assistance to persons with disability, for them to pursue primary, secondary, tertiary, post tertiary, as well as vocational or technical education in both public and private schools through the provision of scholarships, grants, financial aids, subsidies and other incentives to qualified persons with disability, including support for books, learning materials, and uniform allowance, to the extent feasible: Provided, that persons with disability shall meet the minimum admission requirements set by the Department of Education (DEPED), Commission on Higher Education Department (CHED), Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and other entities engaged in the grant of scholarship and financial assistance for the education of persons with disability. For the purposes of this rule, primary education shall include nursery and kindergarten whether in private or public school. The source of funding in addition to the Private Education Student Financial Assistance (PESFA) fund scholarship for the implementation of the above shall be the one percent (1%) allocation for persons with disability in DEPED, CHED, TESDA and other training and educational government agencies as required by General Appropriation Act, subject to the guidelines issued by the DEPED, CHED and TESDA.

    >6.8 Benefits and Privileges for Retirees with Disability

    6.8.1 To the extent practicable and feasible, the persons with disability shall be granted for the continuance of the same benefits and privileges given by the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS), Social Security System (SSS) and PAG-IBIG, as the case may be or, as enjoyed by those in actual service.

    6.8.2 Retirement benefits of retirees from both the government and the private sector shall be regularly reviewed to ensure their continuing responsiveness and sustainability, and to the extent practicable and feasible, shall be upgraded to be at par with the current scale enjoyed by those in active service;

    6.9 Privileges on Granting Special Discounts in Special Programs –To the extent possible, the government may grant special discounts in special programs for persons with disability on purchase of basic necessities and prime commodities in supermarkets and grocery stores. The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Department of Agriculture (DA) shall issue necessary guidelines for the implementation of this scheme.

    6.10 Express Lanes Privileges – Express lanes for persons with disability shall be provided in all private, commercial and government establishments; in the absence thereof, priority shall be given to them in all the transactions of the establishments . LGUs shall ensure that this provision is implemented within their area of jurisdiction.

    There should be an assigned person in all government agencies/offices and private establishments and to provide a section or desk manned by trained personnel to assist persons with disability. The personnel assigned shall be part of the existing manpower in all other government agencies/offices and private establishment as the case maybe or whenever possible.

    6.11 The abovementioned privileges are available only to persons with disability who are Filipino citizens upon submission of any of the following as proof of his/her entitlement thereto subject to the guidelines issued by the NCWDP in coordination with DSWD, DOH and DILG.

    6.11.1 An identification card issued by the city or municipal mayor or the barangay captains of the place where the persons with disability resides;

    6.11.2 The passport of the persons with disability concerned; or

    6.11.3 Transportation discount fare Identification Card (ID) issued by the National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons (NCWDP). However, upon effectivity of this Implementing Rules and Regulations, NCWDP will already adopt the Identification card issued by the Local Government Unit for purposes of uniformity in the implementation. NCWDP will provide the design and specification of the identification card that will be issued by the Local Government Units.

    6.12 Tax Incentives for Benefactors. – Those caring for and living with a person with disability shall be granted incentives in accordance with the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended. For purposes of granting the incentives, persons with disability shall be treated as dependents under Section 35(A) of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and as such, individual taxpayers providing care for them shall be accorded the privileges granted by the Code insofar as having dependents under the same section are concerned.

    6.12.1 Availment of the “head of family status” by benefactors of persons with disability. A benefactor of a person with disability whose civil status is single shall be considered as head of family and shall be allowed to avail himself/herself of that status. As such, he shall be entitled only to one basic personal exemption equivalent to Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25,000), or as allowed thereafter under the National Internal Revenue Code.

    6.12.2 Married individuals with child/children with disability. – A married individual is entitled to a basic personal exemption equivalent to Thirty-two thousand pesos (P32,000) under Section 35(B) of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended. If the married individual has a child or has children with disability, who is/are dependent on him/her for support, he/she shall be entitled to an additional exemption of Eight thousand pesos (P8,000) per qualified dependent (not exceeding four). A married individual is not entitled to the above additional exemption if he/she takes care of a person with disability who is not his/her child, unless he/she legally adopts the same.

    6.12.3 Solo parents (under R.A. No. 8972 – Solo Parent Act) with child/children with disability. – A single or legally separated individual who has a child, legitimate, illegitimate or legally adopted, is entitled to a basic personal exemption granted to a head of family. He/She is entitled also to an additional exemption of Eight thousand pesos per qualified dependent (not exceeding four). A solo parent is not entitled to the above 6.12.1 additional exemption if he/she takes care of a person with disability who is not his/her child, unless he/she legally adopts the same.

    6.12.4 Grandparents with grandchild/grandchildren with disability. – A grandparent who is not legally separated or a widow/widower or a solo parent is entitled to a basic personal exemption of Thirty-two thousand pesos (P32,000) [the personal exemption granted to a married individual]. A grandparent who is legally separated or a widow/widower may still claim the same basic personal exemption as if he/she was separated or as if his/her spouse died at the close of the taxable year, as the case may be. If the grandparent, caring for a grandchild with disability, is legally separated or a solo parent, he/she is entitled only to the status of a head of a family and, as such, he/she shall be entitled only to the basic personal exemption equivalent to Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25,000). A grandparent, caring for a grandchild with disability, cannot avail for himself/herself the additional exemption enjoyed by a married individual or by a solo parent with regard to his/her dependent/s.

    A benefactor shall comply with all the requirements that shall hereinafter be issued by the Secretary of Finance, upon recommendation of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, before he/she can avail of the incentives as provided for under the Act.

    6.13 Individuals or nongovernmental institutions establishing homes, residential communities or retirement villages solely to suit the needs and requirements of persons with disability shall be accorded the following:
    (i) Realty tax holiday for the first five years of operation; and
    (ii) Priority in the building and/or maintenance of provincial or municipal roads leading to the aforesaid home, residential community or retirement village. The city and municipal government concerned where the homes, residential communities or retirement villages is located shall issue the implementing guidelines for the availment of this incentives.

    6.14 Availment of Tax Deductions by Establishment Granting Twenty Percent 20% Discount – The establishments may claim the discounts granted in sub-sections (6.1), (6.2), (6.4), (6.5) and (6.6) as tax deductions based on the net cost of the goods sold or services rendered: Provided, however, that the cost of the discount shall be allowed as deduction from gross income for the same taxable year that the discount is granted: Provided, further, That the total amount of the claimed tax deduction net of value-added tax if applicable, shall be included in their gross sales receipts for tax purposes and shall be subject to proper documentation and to the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended.

    6.15 Prohibitions on Availment of Double Discounts –The privileges mentioned in the foregoing shall not be claimed if the persons with disability claims a higher discount as may be granted by the commercial establishment and/or under other existing laws or in combination with other discount program/s.

    RULE V
    PROHIBITIONS ON VERBAL, NON-VERBAL RIDICULE AND VILIFICATION AGAINST PERSONS WITH DISABILITY

    Section 7. Chapter 1. Deliverance from Public Ridicule – For purposes of this Chapter, public ridicule shall be defined as an act of making fun or contemptuous imitating or making mockery of persons with disability whether in writing, or in words, or in action due to their impairment/s. The following constitutes acts of public ridicule:

    Making fun of a person on account of his/her disability even through jokes in a manner that is degrading resulting to the embarrassment of the person with disability in front of two or more persons;

    Making mockery of a person with disability whether in oral or in writing;

    Imitating a person with disability in public gatherings, stage shows, carnivals, television shows, broadcast media and other forms of entertainments that are offensive to the rights and dignity of persons with disability or any other similar acts;

    No individual, group or community shall execute any of these acts of ridicule against persons with disability in any time and place which could intimidate or result in loss of self-esteem of the latter.

    Section 8. Chapter 2. Deliverance from Vilification – For purposes of this Chapter, vilification shall be defined as:

    The utterance of slanderous and abusive statements against a person with disability such as but not limited to: (1) calling a person by his disability in public which results to humiliation; (2) using the disability of a person as an example in a manner that is embarrassing and humiliating to the dignity of persons with disability.

    An activity in public which incites hatred towards, serious contempt for, or severe ridicule of persons with disability.

    Any individual, group or community is hereby prohibited from vilifying any person with disability which could result into loss of self-esteem of the latter.

    RULE VI
    ENFORCEMENT AND PENALTY

    Section 9. Penalties – Any person who violates any provision of this Act shall suffer the following penalties:

    For the first violation, a fine of not less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) but not exceeding One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than six months but not more than two years, or both at the discretion of the court; and

    For any subsequent violation, a fine of not less than One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) but not exceeding Two hundred thousand pesos (P200,000.00) or imprisonment for not less than two years but not more than six years, or both at the discretion of the court.

    Any person who abuses the privileges granted herein shall be punished with imprisonment of not less than six months or a fine of not less than Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00), but not more than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00), or both, at the discretion of the court.

    If the violator is a corporation, organization or any similar entity, the officials thereof directly involved shall be liable therefore.

    If the violator is an alien or a foreigner, he shall be deported immediately after service of sentence without further deportation proceedings.

    Upon filing of an appropriate complaint, and after due notice and hearing, the proper authorities may also cause the cancellation or revocation of the business permit, permit to operate, franchise and other similar privileges granted to any business entity that fails to abide by the provisions of this Act.

    Section 10. Effectivity. These Implementing Rules and Regulations shall take effect fifteen (15) days after publication in two (2) newspapers of general circulation and filed with the Administrative Registrar, University of the Philippines Law Center as required under the Administrative Code of 1987.

    Sgd. ESPERANZA I. CABRAL, MD
    Secretary
    Department of Social Welfare and Development

    Sgd.JESLI A. LAPUS
    Secreatary
    Department of Education

    Sgd.MARGARITO B. TEVES
    Secretary
    Department of Finance/Bureau of Internal Revenue

    Sgd.JOSEPH H. DURANO
    Secretary
    Department of Tourism

    Sgd.RONALDO V. PUNO
    Secretary
    Department of Interior and Local Government

    Sgd.ARTHUR C. YAP
    Secretary
    Department of Agriculture

    Sgd.LEANDRO R. MENDOZA
    Secretary
    Department of Transportation and Communications

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