Shapingpro Speaks About Behaviors at DXAB 1296

Behavioral Disorders are very common nowadays. Teachers in public and private schools have complained about these behaviors. Parents are in dilemma on what to do.

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I was fortunate that I was tapped by Ms Cheche Diabordo to be the guest of their radio program in ABS-CBN’s DXAB 1296 and speak about this topic and share to the listeners about the characteristics of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and how to handle it.

Last July 27, 2014 Sunday, I was able to interact on air through Miss Macel Dasalla, radio host, to the people who have these similar problems. The show lasted for 2 hours and it was informative. Many listeners tuned in and send their questions and comments about out topic.

For those who missed it. Here are the basic information about ADHD.

  • ADHD is a developmentally inappropriate attention and/ or hyperactivity and impulsivity so pervasive and persistent as to significantly interfere with a child’s daily life.
  • A child with ADHD has difficulty controlling his or behavior in most major settings, including home and school.
  • Behaviors begin to occur relatively early in life (before age 7 years), though they sometimes go unrecognized until later.
  • More boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD at a ratio approximately 3:1
  • It is divided into 3 general subtypes
  1. Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive-type ADHD
  • fidgets, squirms, difficulty waiting his turn, disorganized, act immaturely, poor sense of physical boundaries, destructive behaviors and conduct problems
  1. Predominantly inattentive-type ADHD
  • distracted and “spacey” or “daydreamy”, process information slowly and may have learning   disorder, anxiety or depression
  1. Combined-type ADHD
  • exhibits many of the behaviors of the first 2 subtypes
  • The presence of ADHD may be suspected if the
  • Inattentive, impulsive, or hyperactive behavior is not age-appropriate

X    If its typical, it may change as he or she matures and grows.

  • Behavior leads to chronic problems in daily functioning

X    Mild tendency to daydream or an active temperament, which may cause occasional problems for a child  but not seriously disabling, is not considered evidence of ADHD.

  • Behavior is innate to the child and not a result of inadequate care, physical injury, disease, or other environmental influence.

X    If it is environmental cause, such as stresses at home or an inappropriate classroom placement, is more likely to be the cause of the problem for the child.

  • Many likely causes have been proposed for ADHD, but no single cause has yet been identified.

Risk factors:

  1. Genetic
  2. Variations in temperament (differences in emotional reactivity, activity  level, attention, and self-regulation)
  3. Medical causes
  4. Environmental influences (including toxins such as lead, alcohol, and nutritional deficiencies)
  • One fact of which researchers are certain is that ADHD tends to run in families.
  • No treatment for ADHD is likely to completely eliminate all symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and associated problems and conditions. Communication is the key in treating, monitoring, and following up on treatment of the child with ADHD.

 

  • Medications used in the treatment of ADHD: First Line Treatment
    • METHYLPHENIDATE: Ritalin, Methylin, Focalin (Short-Acting) 3-5 hrs

Ritalin SR, Metadate ER, Methylin ER (Intermediate Acting)   3-8 hrs

Concerta, Metadate CD, Ritalin LA  (Extended-release)   8-12 hrs

  • AMPHETAMINE: Dexedrine, Dextrostat, Adderall

 

Symptoms of ADHD

 From the Vanderbilt Assessment Scale

  1. Does not pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes with, for example, homework

  2. Has difficulty keeping attention to what needs to be done

  3. Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

  4. Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties

  5. Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

  6. Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework)

  7. Loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools)

  8. Is distracted by extraneous stimuli

  9. Is forgetful in daily activities

  10. Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat

  11. Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected

  12. Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which remaining seated is expected

  13. Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly

  14. Is “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor”

  15. Talks excessively

  16. Blurts out answers before questions have been completed

  17. Has difficulty waiting in line

  18. Interrupts or intrudes on others (eg, butts into conversations/games)

Items 1-9: Predominantly Inattentive-Type ADHD

(6 or more symptoms that occur often to very often)

Items 10-18: Predominantly Hyperactive/ Impulsive- Type ADHD

(6 or more symptoms that occur often to very often)

Items 1-18: Combined-Type ADHD

(6 or more symptoms that occur often to very often)

Note: It is not used alone to make a diagnosis of ADHD

 

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Shapingpro Celebrates 4th Year Anniversary

The Shapingpro Child Therapy Center marked their 4th year anniversary with a meaningful celebration with the Ma-a Central Elementary School SPED Center on August 8, 2014.

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Teacher Jun entertains questions from parents

 

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Teacher Jun provides input on the different techniques in handling difficult behaviors of children.

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Teacher Jun pointed out the sensory processing problems that these children encountered which somehow influence them how they behave in their environment.

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A father voices out his concerns and problems about his son’s behaviors.

Mr. Cayetano D. Polancos Jr., proprietor of the center conducted a free seminar attended by more than 50 participants including teachers and parents of children with disabilities.

Alongside the event, a feeding program was provided to 62 children with Autism, Down Syndrome, Visual Impairment, Intellectual Disability, Hearing Impairment who are enrolled in this school.

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Teacher Honey distributed this nutritious food for them.

“The children are very happy that they receive loot bags with food in it aside from the arrozcaldo which was prepared and cooked by their teachers and interns.”, said Miss Honeylou Wabina, program coordinator of the center.

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Teacher Chen prepares the loot bags for the children.

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The children receives loot bags composed of various food items.

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The UM SPED interns and parents helped in the preparation of food. Arrozcaldo is nutritious snack composed of rice, chicken, egg and spices.

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“Thank you,” said the surprised child. “You’re welcome,” said Teacher Honey.

During the discussion, parents expressed their concerns and problems related to rearing and handling children with special needs. “Children with special needs have lags in their milestones, some even have multiple conditions, therefore I urge everyone to set aside traditional beliefs and practices and engage you child in meaningful and purposeful activities at home – a must for your child’s advancement,” said Mr. Polancos during the forum.

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Teacher and parents listened intently as Teacher Jun explained the importance of rules in the classroom as well as in the home.

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Parents listened carefully to the speaker while the free snacks are being served.

“All of these things have been made possible because of the generous donation of my friend, Julius Olegario, a Physical Therapist who is based in Abu Dhabi, his brother Jasper, my staff, my wife Azenith, the kind teachers of this school and the parents and their children who have welcomed even in short notice. We thank you all”, he added.

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Teacher Jun thanked the people who made the center’s 4th year existence meaningful.

Mrs. Jean Pavon, SPED Coordinator of the school thanked the parents, children and the staff of the center for their valuable contribution in providing the activity which helped them in their practice.

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Maam Jean thanked the people and the center who made this event worthwhile.

The participants also received free snacks and certificates. The center also donated seeds for the school’s program as well as beads and puzzles to augment their classroom materials.

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Turnover of seeds, puzzles and other materials to improve the children’s performance.

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V.I. Class with supportive parents and their children.

 

“The Shapingpro Child Therapy Center remains to be steadfast to continue its commitment of delivering appropriate and affordable therapy services to the people of Davao City. To those who cannot come because of distance and financial constraints, we are the ones who come, like this kind of event were we engage parents to open up and share their difficulties, problems, hardships and ask for advice on what to do with their child. We shall continue our SPEDition to every school who have special needs children,” Mr. Polancos concluded.

 

Article by: Jose Balandra

August 10, 2014

Shapers Gazette

 

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Shapingpro Engages Parents In Lay Forum

The Shapingpro Child Therapy Center spearheaded a Lay Forum on Children Disability Prevention participated by parents and teachers at Malagos Elementary School SPED Center on July 18, 2014 at Malagos, Baguio District, Davao City.

Mr. Cayetano Polancos Jr., a Physical Therapist and Special Education Practitioner accompanied by his wife Mrs. Azenith Polancos, also a Physical Therapist, Miss Honeylou Wabina and Miss Cristelle Miky Tinanac were welcomed by the school’s principal Dr. Charito Cortez who told the group of the many challenges that the school’s SPED Teachers were facing amid the many behaviors and academic difficulties that the pupils manifest.

Mr. Polancos, a 13-year veteran in handling children exceptionalities answered the questions during the forum.SAM_7511 Some questions that parents asked were the aggressive behaviors at home, picky eater, sleep problems, grabbing, interruptions at work, grabbing, temper tantrums, among others. He instilled the responsibility and authority of parents to be taken seriously with firmness and consistency.

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After the forum, the group donated mats, puzzles, toys, self-help and fine motor materials. The school is a newly established SPED Center and the materials can be used to improve and augment delivery of services especially that the school has a growing number of pupils with exceptional needs particularly Autism, Intellectual Disability, ADHD, Global Delay, among others.SAM_7546

This school and community program is intended as part of the center’s celebration of the National Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation Week. Mr. Polancos hails from Baguio District where he grew up. “Back to my roots, children from this district deserves quality and optimal services the way children received services from downtown area. The intervention and awareness should cross boundaries and distances. It should traverse where it is much needed.”

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Article by: Jose Balandra July 21,2014  Shapers Gazette

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Pagpapaunlad Sa Kasanayan ng Bata ay Magsisimula sa Bahay

Pagpapaunlad sa Kasanayan ng Bata ay Magsisimula sa Bahay

family(Developing skills of a child begins at home)

                                                                               

                                        The SHAPINGPRO Family Education Guide

        Ang pagkakaroon ng problema sa “development” ng inyong anak o kamag-anak ay kailangan tingnan sa iba’t-ibang bahagi. Hindi dapat panghinaan ng loob, sa halip tingnan ito na isang malaking hamon sa inyo.

          Ang “development” ay isang mahabang proseso. Ito ay napagdaanan natin. Kung ang inyong anak ay may kakaibang development keysa sa ibang bata, tayo ay komunsulta agad sa isang espesyalistang duktor para sa mga ganitong kondisyon na ang tawag ay “Developmental Pediatrician”. Sila ang may kakayahang malaman at masuri kung anong klaseng kondisyon mayroon ang bata. 

          Bilang pagpapaalala, kung ang “development” niya ay kakaiba sa ibang bata, halimbawa, hindi pa siya nakakasalita at hindi mo maintindihan ang kanyang “behavior”, ito ay ating bigyang aksyon sa pamamagitan ng pagsuri sa ating sariling kakayahan. Kung itong mga problema na inyong nakikita ay hindi nadadaan sa “traditional” na pamamaraan, iyong karaniwang pagpapalaki sa atin, siguro ay kailangang gumamit tayo ng estratehiya na maaring kombinasyon ng pangkaraniwan at iyong pinag-aralan ng mga dalubhasa na tatawagin nating “technique”.

Una, tanggapin natin na kailangang may pagbabago. Kung naghahangad kayo ng “progress” sa kondisyon ng bata, nararapat lamang na pag-ibayuhin natin ang ating kaalaman at pagtibayin ang paniniwala na makakamtan ng bata ang “development”, maaring dahan-dahan, mabilis, o minsan ay wala – pero sa ibang aspeto ay nag uumapaw naman.

                    Itigil na natin na ikarga at ituring siyang “baby”. Tanggalin na ang “diaper” at ang “milk bottle” kung saan siya dumedede na parang sanggol. Sa ating pagtitiyaga at sakripisyo, father cuddling babyna turuan siya araw-araw, ang bata ay matututo. Inuulit ko, mas mabuting magsimula sa inyo ang “development” na inyong hinahangad sapagkat ang bata ay tumatanggap lamang ng mga bagay at eksperyensya na tayo ang nagtatakda. Kung itatakda mo na siya ay magdede, subuan ng pagkain, gawin ang aktibidad na dapat siya ang gumagawa, ikaw lang ang magkakaroon ng “development”, hindi ang bata. Kaya simula ngayon, tayo ang magtatakda ng “development” para sa bata.

Pangalawa, kung maari ang TV, cellphone, laptop, tablet at kung anu-ano pa ay dapat para sa matatanda lamang. Ang para sa bata ay libro, lapis, papel, krayola, at mga kagamitang makaka “develop” sa kanyang isipan. Kung may problema sa pagsasalita ang isang bata, mas lalong walang ganyang uri ng teknolohiya. Ang dapat gawin ay kausapin ang bata at kailangang hindi mabilis at dapat maririnig niya. Isang libo at limang daan na salita sa loob ng isang araw ay makakatulong sa bata upang maka impok ng lengguwahe. Hindi pwedeng pagsabayin ang TV viewing at dayalogo ninyong dalawa. confusedAng ingay sa TV at salita mo ay nagpapagulo lang sa daluyan ng “sound” papunta sa tenga. Sa ating pagtitiyaga at sakripisyo, na turuan siya araw-araw, ang bata ay matututo. Inuulit ko, mas mabuting magsimula sa inyo ang “development” na inyong hinahangad sapagkat ang bata ay tumatanggap lamang ng mga bagay at eksperyensya na tayo ang nagtatakda.

                   Panghuli, ang “behavior” ay nahahati sa dalawa – “appropriate” o katanggap-tanggap at “inappropriate” o iyong hindi kanais-nais at kakaiba keysa karaniwang bata na ka-edad niya. Ito ay mahirap unawain sapagkat hindi natin mabubuksan ang utak upang ito ay makita o ma “predict”. Subalit, may mga “behavior” na pwedeng matutunan. Pero ito ay nangangailangan ng matinding sakripisyo at tiyaga, “consistency” at palaging gagawin sa oras na ito ay magpapakita. Itigil na natin ang “spanking” o palo sapagkat ito ay panandalian lang at takot ang mamayani sa kanya. Ito ay negatibo sapagkat hindi pa niya kayang intindihin ang anumang “traditional” na disiplina na ipapataw sa kanya.

          Ang dapat gawin ay purihin o “praise” kung siya ay nakakagawa ng “appropriate” na gawain. “Ignoring” o sadyang hindi pagtingin at pagpansin sa kanyang “inappropriate” na ginagawa. Ito ay para sa mga hindi delikadong aksyon lamang at iyong hindi nakakasakit sa kanya at sa ibang bata. At pangatlo, “consequence” o ang pagbibigay ng parusa sa kanyang ginawa na hindi nararapat. Ang consequence ay maaring “time-out” o ang walang gagawin sa loob ng limang minuto, “response cost” o pagkuha sa mga kinahihiligan niya sa panahong iyon. Hindi na daanin sa pagsigaw at pangangaral. Konting salita lang po – ITO AY EPEKTIBO.

         crying child Sa loob ng isang linggo, ito ang inyong gagawin upang matugunan ang “development” niya. Kailangan na siya ay may “endurance” at “resiliency” na ang ibig sabihin ay may pasensya, may kakayanan na tanggapin ang iba’t-ibang eksperyensiya.

          1. Huwag ibigay ang gusto niya. Kailangang pumunta siya sa iyo. Huwag siyang pansinin kung iiyak. Tingnan siya at hintayin kung ano ang hakbang niya. Huwag mangangaral, sisigaw. Konting salita na mahinahon at maiintindihan niya ay mas epektibo. Bumilang ng 50 bago ibigay ang pagkain o inumin o laruan. Kailangan matuto siyang maghintay at mag “communicate” sa gusto niya.

          2. Maglaro kayo kahit sampung minuto at obserbahan siya sa sahig ng inyong living room. Hindi ka magtuturo. Masdan mo lamang siya. Ikaw ang kanyang magiging kalaro. Huwag mangangaral. Konting salita na mahinahon at maiintindihan niya ay mas epektibo.

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                             http://www.facebook.com/shapingprotherapy                                                                                                                        

Inihanda at Isinulat ni: Teacher Jun Polancos

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What Flight Are You On?

What Flight Are You On?
By: Cayetano Polancos Jr.
August 5,2013

There is a story of a woman who is speeding her car to the airport. In the highway, there is a traffic jam. She sees a car double-park, people crossing the street, buses loading and unloading passengers anywhere and vehicles waiting for the green light. carHoping she can escape, she takes the shortcut. Unfortunately, upon her journey to that unknown route she encounters much difficult scenarios: she is stuck in the muddy road because of a flat tire and worst she reads a small sign – dead-end.

Some parents of special needs children usually hopes for the regular route expecting to get things done easily, speedily and comfortably. However, there is no such thing as regular and shortcut routes to treatment. There is surely a better term – journey and process.

As you can see, traffic jam symbolizes the process of loading and unloading, learning and unlearning, double standard practices and people who confuse parents of the many myths and unproven alleviation to present childhood conditions. The shortcut route is the unforeseeable events when we rush things and it usually brings you to a dead-end thus bringing you again to the origin. In other words, you have to undergo a painstaking effort of starting all over again.

When things seem to fall apart, the dreams you have for the children seems to slip away and the frustrations piling up everyday, you tend to speed up like it’s a drag race trying to overtake the normal course of development. By doing so, you unnecessarily drag the child with your acceleration. When you are riding a sports vehicle, your child is steering a wagon. Let us see the analogy. Be cautious and not rush things. Be proactive. It’s easier to take the flight of truth now than take the immediate flight of escape which can eventually crash in the tarmac of anger and depression.

You have a choice.7317396-african-family-airport-cartoon Maybe the next flight, though long and exhausting, may lead you to the truth…that no matter what, it’s the journey that can make you see the beauty of life, appreciate more fully the positive and strengths of the child and the loving grandeur of God and how He chooses you among billions of human creations to be the vessel and carer of His special one.

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Behavioral Therapy

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

What is Autism?

Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or classical ASD) is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

Autistic children have difficulties with social interaction, display problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and exhibit repetitive behaviors or narrow, obsessive interests. These behaviors can range in impact from mild to disabling. Autism varies widely in its severity and symptoms and may go unrecognized, especially in mildly affected children or when more debilitating handicaps mask it. Scientists aren’t certain what causes autism, but it’s likely that both genetics and environment play a role.

Is there any treatment?

There is no cure for autism. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement. The ideal treatment plan coordinates therapies and interventions that meet the specific needs of individual children. Treatment options include educational/bahavioral interventions, medications, and other therapies. Most professionals agree that the earlier the intervention, the better.

What is the prognosis?

For many children, autism symptoms improve with treatment and with age. Some children with autism grow up to lead normal or near-normal lives. Children whose language skills regress early in life, usually before the age of 3, appear to be at risk of developing epilepsy or seizure-like brain activity. During adolescence, some children with autism may become depressed or experience behavioral problems. Parents of these children should be ready to adjust treatment for their child as needed. People with an ASD usually continue to need services and support as they get older but many are able to work successfully and live independently or within a supportive environment.

What research is being done?

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts research in its laboratories at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and also supports additional research through grants to major medical institutions across the country. As part of the Children’s Health Act of 2000, the NINDS and three sister institutes have formed the NIH Autism Coordinating Committee to expand, intensify, and coordinate NIH’s autism research. More information about the Autism Coordinating Committee is available at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-funding/scientific-meetings/recurring-meetings/iacc/nih-initiatives/nih-autism-coordinating-committee.shtml. Eight dedicated research centers across the country have been established as “Centers of Excellence in Autism Research” to bring together researchers and the resources they need. The Centers are conducting basic and clinical research, including investigations into causes, diagnosis, early detection, prevention, and treatment of autism.

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/autism/autism.htm

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Learning Disability

What are Learning Disabilities?

Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. Research shows that 8 to 10 percent of American children under 18 years of age have some type of learning disability.
Is there any treatment?

The most common treatment for learning disabilities is special education. Specially trained educators may perform a diagnostic educational evaluation assessing the child’s academic and intellectual potential and level of academic performance. Once the evaluation is complete, the basic approach is to teach learning skills by building on the child’s abilities and strengths while correcting and compensating for disabilities and weaknesses. Other professionals such as speech and language therapists also may be involved. Some medications may be effective in helping the child learn by enhancing attention and concentration. Psychological therapies may also be used.

What is the prognosis?

Learning disabilities can be lifelong conditions. In some people, several overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent. Other people may have a single, isolated learning problem that has little impact on their lives.

What research is being done?

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) support research learning disabilities through grants to major research institutions across the country. Current research avenues focus on developing techniques to diagnose and treat learning disabilities and increase understanding of their biological basis.

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/learningdisabilities/learningdisabilities.htm#What_is

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Shaping Pro Advocacy Campaign

Davao SPEDition is an advocacy concept that aims to improve special children’s lives through education.

Davao SPEDition is a project of allied health professionals, students of special education and paraprofessionals who have the passion to share their knowledge, skills, and talent to uplift and improve the lives of special children, their families, and their communities.

VISION

We shall be the leading exponent of Special Education in Davao City committed to the pursuit of quality and sustainable services for children with special needs.

MISSION

To translate DAVAO SPEdition mission of service to special children, it hopes to achieve the following:

  • To initiate research projects in Special Education
  • To organize events for the benefit of the special children
  • To facilitate drama therapy for special children and youth who are at-risk.
  • To conduct awareness campaign on special needs of children to schools and communities in Davao City
  • To train paraprofessionals in home-based practice of Special Education and Rehabilitation of special children
  • To collaborate with other organizations for projects related to special children

OBJECTIVES

1. To help communities in strengthening their programs particularly for the special children.

2. Create an ensemble of youth Creative Artists for the Promotion, Advocacy for Special Children especially Drama Therapy.

3. Coordinates with Developmental Pediatricians, Non-Government Organizations, Rehabilitation, SPED Centers, and Schools for the accommodation of special children

4. Participation of local and national celebrations for the welfare of the disabled

5. Volunteer training for professionals, students in home-based programs

6. Developmental training and education in selected bases of barangays during the SPEDition.

7. Consultation services extended to children’s parents and relatives.

8. To hold seminar-workshops about Detection and Intervention Processes for Special Children in far-flung barangays of the City of Davao

9. To promote social awareness in the rights of children with disabilities, referral processes to avail of the programs and services of the government and non-government organizations

10. To provide educational and rehabilitation opportunities to children with disabilities who cannot travel by encouraging home-based services of professionals trained by the SPEDition.

11. To put up a base in the barangay, to be the center for additional trainings and programs and also the center for activities for the development of special children.

GUIDING PRINCIPLES

1. DAVAO SPEDition focuses on programs and services that enhance special children’s self-esteem, development of their creative skills, and potential for growth.

2. DAVAO SPEDition supports and encourages the active participation of barangay leaders, professionals and student volunteers in the implementation of its projects.

3. DAVAO SPEDition believes in multiple intelligences theory that points to the different areas wherein a child can develop his or her potentials.

4. DAVAO SPEDition advocates for the protection of children’s right and their welfare.

5. DAVAO SPEDition believes and respects the rights of children, youth, and adults who are differently-abled.


SPED is about reaching out to those who are challenged physically, intellectually, and behaviorally. SPED requires compassion, thus it is a road less traveled.

SPED is about being a servant ready to answer the call of his master. The master is our Lord Jesus. He asks us to comfort the sufferings of the families with children who are abnormal in the world’s measuring stick. We do not judge. We care.

SPED gives opportunities for self-actualization.. that being accepted and acknowledged of possessing talents and skills are but the core of human fulfillment. By giving these chances for growth and development, by teaching them skills, by providing exposures, by giving information to the communities are insurmountable tasks for those whose hearts are closed. It is only in SPED that we can say that the only abnormality is the incapacity to love.

� Whoever receives one child such as this in my name, receives me ….. � (Mk 9:37).

A CHILD IS A GIFT

The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: A child is not something owed to one, but is a gift. The “supreme gift of marriage” is a human person. A child may not be considered a piece of property, an idea to which an alleged “right to a child” would lead. In this area, only the child possesses genuine rights: the right “to be the fruit of the specific act of the conjugal love of his parents,” and the “right to be respected as a person from the moment of his conception” (CCC 2378).

Yes, the unborn child is God’s gift to the couple, the child must be cherished, nurtured and nourished by the family of man and woman. We, therefore, continue to affirm the Church’s condemnation of abortion and exploitation of the human embryo as a direct violation of the fundamental right to life of the human being. It is a crime surely abominable in the eyes of Mother Church.

A CHILD CALLED TO EDUCATION

Luke in his gospel describes the hidden life of Jesus in the following words: �He went down with them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to them; and his Mother kept all these things in her heart. And Jesus advanced in wisdom and age and favor before God and man� (Lk 2:51-52). To advance in wisdom, age and favor before God and man, is to grow into maturity like our Lord. Growth into maturity is made possible through the education given by parents. The model of parental formation is the home of Jesus, Mary and Joseph in Nazareth. Yes, Nazareth in its simplicity, humility and hiddenness. Nazareth alludes to the family atmosphere of charity and respect. The family, after all is the first school — the right and duty to educate follows the right to give life. The heart of educating the child in the home is catechesis. Parents are the first catechists — they are called to echo the person of Christ. And their close collaborators are the schools and institutions of learning.

A most serious agenda in today’s Church is the formation of a correct conscience among the children. John Paul speaks of this imperative in the following words: Dearly beloved, the Apostle Paul reminds us of the necessity of being adult persons in the faith, mature in our judgments, possessed of a moral conscience capable of guiding our choices in harmony with “the truth in love.” The formation of conscience is a fundamental duty. The reason is very simple: our conscience can err. And when error prevails over it, it becomes a cause of greatest harm for the human person…“ (General Audience, August 24, 1983).

Home and school are bound to take the formation of correct conscience a serious endeavor. It is for this reason that we call parents and teachers to work closely as collaborators in education. We call upon the public school administrators and teachers to continue their support of catechesis in their schools; to open the doors of our schools to our catechists. We call upon Catholic learning institutions to continue strengthening religion as core of the curriculum

A CHILD CALLED TO FULLNESS OF LIFE

The gift of human life is called to greater LIFE! Every Filipino has one single aspiration: na maging ganap ang buhay dito sa Pilipinas. This aspiration can only be true in and through what John Paul calls an Ecology of Life over and against a Culture of Death. John Paul states: Children are the eloquent symbol and splendid image of these moral and spiritual conditions that are essential for entering the Kingdom of God and for living the logic of total confidence in the Lord. These conditions are simplicity, sincerity and receptive humility.

To reinforce an ecology of life, we need to become like little children — open to the grace of God and witnessing to his power. One can cite the little Therese of Lisieux who exclaimed: �I want to be a saint!� And the boy Dominic Savio and Maria Goretti, model of purity who lived uncompromisingly the words of truth: �Death rather than Sin!�

Children need models of holiness, of greater life: Therese of the Child Jesus, Dominic Savio, Maria Goretti, Tarcisius, Laura Vicu�a, Aloysius Gonzaga and Emerentiana. Who are they? Find out who they are — and imitate their lives. In explaining why Pius X lowered the age of first communion, the Pope said: �There will be saints among the children.� And indeed saints there have been. John Paul has a new challenge: There will be apostles among the children!May this prediction be true today.

Dear brothers and sisters, may the Holy Family of Nazareth be ever the model of every human family. May Mary, Mother of Life and Joseph, Guardian of the Redeemer accompany us as our children grow into the maturity of Christ.

With my sincerest and choicest blessings, I remain,

Sincerely in the Lord Jesus,

(Sgd.) + JAIME L. CARDINAL SIN, D.D.

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Shaping Pro Home-Based Therapy

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Physical Therapists as Catalysts of Change

The recently concluded PT Convention which was held in Davao City had refreshed my memory in the different fields where a PT is usually needed. I have admired the dedication of the PPTA for spearheading this event and making it an informative affair. The convention consists of plenary sessions which tackle various PT issues such as ethics, research, RA 5680, Special interests, global practice among others. Parallel sessions that I found relevant in my practice include exercise prescription for specific cardiac conditions, stroke and cerebral palsy. In addition my understanding of stroke rehab has been enhanced by a presentation of the evolution of neuroplasticity and it’s application into clinical practice. I have realized my role as Physical Therapist in the promotion of exercise, healthy lifestyle and prevention of disabilities. An opportune time also for the agencies to showcase their packages for interested PTs.

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A Compilation of Essays on Special Education

Where do these special children came from?
Cristelle Miky C. Tinanac

There are different theories, gossips, and even superstitious beliefs in what and where these special children do came from. Scientifically speaking, some of the special children are born different compared to normal babies’ base on physical features. Other disabilities can be seen during the child’s growth. There are some causes that are genetics or inherited from the parents and some are develop later part in their childhood. Most of the reasons that cause disability is during the pregnancy, having poor diet, drinking alcohol, lack of intake of vitamins as well as minerals and in some cases having rubella and other disease during the prenatal stage.

In whatever causes of different disabilities and disorders that a child may have, still special children are gift and blessing from God. It is said that receiving a child is like receiving God. We must nurture and love them just like what God is doing. Children are special to God. They are innocent and harmless. They are his angels, our angels. Whether it is normal or special children. We are all equal. I remember what a blind man said “Blindness is not a hindrance, it’s just a limitation.”

Why do I take SPED?
by Rea Crissa G. Montederamos

I take SPED because of a lot of reason. First, to help children with special needs we must help them to learn because they have a right to taught us a normal God created us an equal, he/she must have a right to mingle to everyone normal or have special and understand their situation. Second, through this SPED I can make children smile and laugh and I want them to consider their self as a normal like children who can play and mingle to other children and go to the school. Third, the salary we all know that our country are facing the Global Financial Crisis that’s why all our needs are increase like food, gasoline, clothes, water and many more . Fourth, to help my parents and make them proud, when I take this kind of major they tell me it’s not easy but through this I can help many children and it can make me have a better future someday. Fifth, for God I know God give me this opportunity to help others especially with special need because they created us an equal he wants to consider the special need as a normal not an ugly. We must help them because they need us and they cannot understand their situation.

Why do I take up SPED?
by Beatriz Nicole Macomao

Special Education is very important to those children with special needs especially now that there are a lot of special children that needs education. Special Children needs more attention than the others so that they will think that they are loved by others.

I take up Special Education because I want to educate those students with special needs. I want to understand why they are acting that way. Unlike any other normal children they need more love and affection. One of the reasons why I take up Special Education is that I have a brother with Mild Mental Retardation (also known as Intellectual Disability). Through this Special Education, it can help me distinguish why he had this illness and how it can affect his studies. I want to help those children who have skills but have difficulty in developing it because of their disability. I take up Special Education because I want to know more about the different disabilities and educate the people in dealing with them. I want them to know that even they have this disability they can still do their best in doing things other children might have done. I want to learn how to communicate with them well. I take up Special Education because I want to know how to assess them. Through this I can be more aware about their disability and on how to manage them.

Through my course taken up, I can be assured that I can help them in everything they ought to be. This is why I take up Special Education to be more aware to those children. I think this would be enjoyable.

WE ARE ALL EQUAL
by Riva belle Sayson

All of us are made equal, especially in the eyes of GOD. We all have unique characteristics that made us different from the others.

Some of us were born with exceptions. They are different from us because of their disability. Some of them have problems physically, mentally and emotionally.

Some people treat them as if they are not humans,some makes fun of them like toys and clowns, others are scared to come near to them because they thought that their condition is contagious. These are only some of the unfair treatment that other people show to those persons with exceptionalities. All of us are human beings. Despite the disability that other people has, they also have to be treated equally like a normal being. Proper treatment must be given to them because they are the ones who need it the most. We all know that world is sometimes unfair, we must learn to give importance to others, especially those who need it the most. Eventhough they are different from us, they need to feel that they are not really far behind from being normal. We are made unique, but we are all humans, differences must not be a barrier for others to be treated unequally.

General Education VS Special Education
by Dona Mae Gultiano

General Education refers to a formal education containing pupils/students and teachers. It is also a systematized institution that allows students to enhance their skills and be more productive. Students are taught according to their grade or year level by their respective teachers. They are also exposed to some extra-curricular activities that are related to the lessons being discussed by teachers. On the other hand, Special Education is an instructionally based intervention. This program of the Department of Education is to provide children with special needs appropriate educational services within the mainstream of basic education. Special Education aims to provide a flexible and individualized support system for children and youth with special needs in a regular class environment in School nearest the student’s home, provide support services, vocational programs and work training employment opportunities for efficient community participation and independent living. The word Inclusion describes the process by which a school accepts children with special needs for enrollment in regular classes where they can learn side by side with their peers. However, General Education and Special Education are both concerned with the student’s need in terms of learning.

General Education vs. Special Education
by Audrey Amanda C. Quir

It’s not a secret that Special Education teachers earn a lot more than regular teachers. And this fact sometimes creates friction between the two sides, the other claiming who’s better and more important. But the thing that’s often forgotten is that without the other nothing is going to happen to our country’s educational status. Without the both of them, at the same time, Philippines will stay where it is and not move an inch toward improvement.

I would like to believe that when the pioneers of Special Education started this endeavor they had not thought of taking the spotlight away from the regular teachers, because in the first place there was no spotlight. Being a teacher requires a great deal of humility, whether a General Education teacher or a Special Education teacher.

General Education teachers are vital for the survival of our society. Who would teach doctors to be doctors? Engineers to be engineers? Businessmen to be businessmen? Without them, there wouldn’t be any chance that the Philippines would make it to the next year alive. But of course, Special Education teachers are equally important. It is because of them that people who are differently-able get a chance to live a life to the fullest. What kind of person wouldn’t want both of that at the same time?

It is at this point that I would like to stress, there is no ‘vs’. Why would there be? Our ultimate goal as teachers is to help our students reach their highest capacity in all aspects of life. And if the values and integrity of a real teacher is in us, we wouldn’t even be thinking about the salary.

As future educators, both regular and special education teachers, let us strive to break this barrier, forget about who gets paid more, and feel the real compassion to help the Filipino children in our hearts. And let this genuine love we feel do its magic in changing lives.

General Education vs Special Education
by Sheena Rose Priete

General Education and Special Education have the same goals. They have been implemented to help children become productive. General Education is an education in which it offers all the subjects that can make a person be literate in many ways. It involves a mental, social, psychomotor, emotional, spiritual activity that makes up a person. On the other hand, Special Education is an individually-based instruction for special children. It offers basic education for the children with special needs. Other SPED schools also offer vocational subjects.

Nowadays, majority of the children with disabilities attend schools in public schools. However, there are certain problems about this mater. These children cannot have a special attention from the teachers which leads the children to become illiterate because of some instances. One is that General Education teachers do not have enough knowledge about special education in which they don’t know how to handle these children especially during tantrums. Another thing is that the teachers cannot give proper lesson for the students because his or her attention will be divided. Not all special children can undergo general education. It depends upon their abilities because there are certain subjects in which they cannot do such as Physical Education. Special Children should be attending class in SPED Centers in order for them to learn and become productive. But the problem is not all families can afford to let their children enroll in SPED Centers. It is because of their financial problem. There are also public schools that offer Special Education but the school cannot accept children if they don’t undergo diagnosis. And diagnosis is very expensive.

These problems should find ways by the government. Let us give importance for these children with disabilities. They are also human and they should live happily despite of their disabilities. They are not different. They can be productive in their own little ways through the help of Special Education.

Why Do I Take Special Education?
by Fatima Andrea U. Villavelez

It was really not my plan to took up Special Education. But I think that God made it`s own way to embrace Special Education on me. And apparently it never occur as regrets, were in fact I’m glad and happy to become a future SPED teacher.

I was really being motivated to took up SPED for two of my cousins are deaf- mute. And as I am having this course, I find it interesting to teach and help those children with special needs for my cousins as well needs one. For when they arrived here, I was assigned to tutor one. I can`t explain how happy I am to help him even just for a while. I can`t explain the feeling of gratitude when he learns something from me and I’m looking forward to feel the same way when I’d be able to become a teacher someday. And that`s what made me realize that being a SPED teacher plays a very important role in molding a special chid to become functional and productive in our society. And I see how plenty of children here in Davao needs special education and I seek a helping hand for those children for I know God put me into this and He has purpose for me why I took up this future profession. And I know that I can handle everything that comes in my way for I know He is with me, that guides me.

“I am a Sped Teacher”
by Nimfa Abella

Being a sped teacher is one of the most difficult tasks to do. It requires a lot of patience and perseverance. A sped teacher must be a person who has a strong sense of personality. Handling special children is more difficult than handling a normal one. Learner’s who are special have also the right to learn and develop its potential. They must thought basic skills for them to survive and they are the learner’s who needs love and care. Seeing them learning with my help as a sped teacher feels good to be the part of the progress of a child who is in need to undergo the special education in their life as an individual citizen. Despite of their condition, I can see that they are doing their best to understand the things around them. It’s very difficult to handle them but I take that as a challenge to my self and my responsibility to be a sped teacher. Even other people think that they have no value in this world that they are different, that they are just a big liability in their family in their family but for me they are normal people but they are special in their own ways of living in life. Everybody has a uniqueness of personality. To live to the fullest in this earth by the wills of our almighty god in heaven.

Functional versus Academic in the field of SPED
by Emely Mindog

When caring for older adults, it needs to be aware of the common age and disease related disorders that can negatively affect functional ability of the person. When we say functional it refers to the assessment of one’s child that has particular disability. It is an assessment that will help one’s child on how to take care of his/her self by doing particular routinary matters like eating, dressing, and taking a bath and etc. Functional assessment is being applied to the persons who are older and including those with the most severe disabilities. These also demonstrate the applications of using tools that can help them in the day to day activities. By means of functional assessment you help the person to live in this world as normal that can do some of the task as being performed by the normal persons. Then when we say academic it is the foundational for the success of identification, placement and programming for children with special needs. The academic assessment is more applicable to the children and not severe on his/her disability that has the capability to learn in terms of academic. But these two systems helps the children’s and older persons that has disability to develop them and become more productive person in this society.

I am a SPED Teacher
by Corazon Fe L. Dujali

To live normally is an opportunity and life itself is a precious gift from God. Though every person might live in different ways and have different obstacles to undergo, learning will always take a part. Living is learning and so as every human being has capability to learn. All people are equipped with cognitive and appetitive faculties, we only vary in the degree. We all have our own abilities, interests, family and cultural backgrounds, attitudes that is why we are all considered as unique, special and should never be judged as futile.

Enthusiasm makes a goal burning, a tool needed in learning. With this, education comes in and rekindles every dry mind. A teacher was made and had been an instrument to set the fire burning. Teacher serves as conductor and learners are the fuel. But in the aspect of Special Education, teachers do conduct and at the same time fuels every learner. An amazing role that fervently guides those individuals who have disabilities. Giving opportunity for everyone and support to the parent’s of those special individuals. For teaching is a mission, SPED teachers do give full time dedication not only in class but throughout the areas to which they would be needed. Because of this, the word “EXTRA” suits best; extra care, extra time, extra effort, extra patience, extra understanding, extra love. That’s why teaching is the noblest profession for it teaches not only every profession but also transform every people who have special conditions. Not only touching every life but living with it. Maybe many would see a SPED teacher’s job as the worthless of all, but just always bear in mind that worthlessness comes from ignorance and insensitivity.

For me, teaching is not just the very core of being an educator. It is making difference out of the hardest in your student’s lives. Because a teacher affects eternity and that would never be paid nor denied. I am a SPED teacher and I can do extra special things out of little minds.

I am a SPED Teacher
by Sally N. Fundal

I am proud to say that my ambition in life is to become a Special Education teacher. Whose being aware that handling exceptional children and youth in spite of their disability they are still capable in learning, their mental ability maybe average, below or above average and they are like all other children have the same psychological needs, they want to belong, to be accepted, to be appreciated, and to be loved. In return they are capable of showing appreciation, gratitude, love and friendship. So looking forward to be an affective special education educator I idolized teacher who not only show good actions that the children need to follow but also prepares the human resources for the further development of the nation. The teacher that one who molds a child in what he will be on the future. Whose knowledge is being shared or transferred or imparted to the children. The teacher who is guiding the child for him to attain his dream and expectations.

As a future special Education teacher I will do my best to help exceptional children and youth to make them appreciate in school activities through a modified or functional curriculum and so enable him/her to learn the skill and competencies in basic education and help them attain their full potential by using effective strategies and approaches that suited to their capabilities.

Of course being aware of some characteristics of the said children, I know I must be patience enough to understand them. Must be knowledgeable enough to think or predict applicable strategies in the teaching learning process to make it meaningful to them. Like what will be the most applicable materials to use, and how to interact them, and applying experiences that will be safe, healthy, interesting, achievable and challenging to the children with special need.

The good teacher in special education must have the goal to help the children with special need to become independent by not depending assistance for the rest of their lives from other persons especially in terms of home living, social skills, community use, self direction, academic functional and health and safety. And they will become productive not only to their selves but also to their communities.

WHY DO I TAKE SPECIAL EDUCATION?
by Cherry Fe Posadas

Why do I take special education? When I entrance at Holy Cross of Davao College I chose special education as my course. My first reason when I take special education is that having that degree will help me in the future. It will give me a great job. The second reasons why I take special education that the first place my parents ask me to take it so that I can have a great work. But when I first encountered a special child I had fall in love with a child. Now that I encountered more special children with disabilities I had that feeling that I really what to be with them and teach them to live life.

Now I can totally say to when people ask me why I take special education because I’m in love them and I love them with all my heart. I will help them live life to the fullest.

Why do I take SPED?
by Evelyn Malingin

Why do I take SPED?…well I take up Sped (special education) because I really want to know the different kinds of disabilities, and I want also to know of how to take good care those children with disabilities. I take up also SPED because I was inspired by my teacher when I was still studying my care giving course, like for example in the module of “SPECIAL NEEDS” our teacher tackle about the different kinds of disabilities like for examples: autism, down syndrome, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, asthma, and etc. in this subject we have also tackle about the different characteristics of each disabilities, the sign and symptoms, the treatment or the medication, the causes of each disabilities and also we have tackle about how to handle those children or people having this different kinds of disabilities.

After I finished my care giving course, I have decided that I need to continue in studying about the different kinds of disabilities because I’m really curious about this. I want also to know that where this different kinds of disabilities came from. I also study SPED because I want to know why this different kinds of disabilities exist and I want to know the concrete causes, treatment or medication, the sign and symptoms and etc.

I take up SPED because I want to know how to avoid all of this different kinds of disabilities. I want also to help those children who are special and who really needs my help as a teacher in special education. I want also to gain more knowledge in how to deal with those special children. Lastly I take up SPED, because I want to prove to myself that even though it’s hard to become a teacher in special education but still I will do my best in order to fulfill my duties as a future teacher in SPED someday.

“Why Do I take SPED”
by Helena Flor T. Capito

When I was still in high school, choosing my course is such a hard thing to do. Back then I have lots of courses that I want to take up but there was this one thing that made me realize that SPED (special education) is the course that I want to take up. It is when I saw the film “I am Sam”. I know that the film “I am Sam” is not a movie about a Special Education teacher and it is about a guy with a Mental Retardation who is fitting for his right to take care of his daughter.

While watching that film, it made me realize how little I know of people with Mental Retardation and other disabilities. That’s when I said to my self that I will take up SPED (special education) because not only to know how to teach children with special need but also to know a lot about them. I want to know how they interact with people and how will the regular children interact with them, and how they manage to learn things with their capacities that sometimes they are smarter than regular children. I also want to know how I should deal with them most especially when they have tantrums.

Now I’m still learning how to deal with children having different disabilities and knowing their different characteristics. But I am enjoying myself while learning because sometimes we go to different SPED schools and we meet different children with disabilities and it’s so fun.

I hope I will learn a lot and I will become one of the best Special Education teachers and I can give my best capacity that I can give.

WHY DO I TAKE SPED?
by JESIREL P. ANGCO

I first enrolled college at University of Southeastern Philippines taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Math but for a half dozen reason I stopped. I went home under graduate. In a remote area I found myself teaching children ages ranging two to six years old in a day care center. I taught there for three school years. However, I realized that teaching day care is not enough for me. I can do more. I can give more than just teaching fifteen little children in a school year. So I continued my studies.

From Agusan del Sur I went back in Davao City to finish my course. I enrolled in Philippine College of Technology, BSED major in English Saturday class. I worked on weekdays and went to school on Saturdays but unfortunately I was not satisfied on weekend classes. That’s why I transferred in Holy Cross College of Davao. I was first enrolled here in BSED major in English but my sister suggested shifting on BEED so I was thinking what would be my major major. One of my subject, I had a classmate who was a unit earner who gave a remark on me and at the same time the light that leads my way to take up SPED. She said, “Bright ka girl, bagay ka sa SPED.” I was smiling and thinking, she’s absolutely right…she had a point…I will shift.
I graduated elementary in a Sped class. We were labeled as the fast learners. I thought that was Sped all about, teaching bright pupils but I was wrong. I never knew it until I took up my first major subject Introduction to Special Education. But I am still thankful. Now I understand people more than before. I understand why they are like this and like that, why they behave this way and that way. I understand and know now myself.

I didn’t choose to take SPED. For me it’s a call. I was called to be a SPED teacher. I am hoping and praying I will be one someday somehow…because in the scripture stated there that “Many are called but only few are chosen.”

Why do I take SPED ?
by Christopher Manlangit

Being a sped teacher is not my career’s choice but it’s my vocation before I shift from elementary major in generalist to special education , I pray to our almighty God that he will guide me and enlightened my mind to pursue my profession because being a sped teacher is not easy as other people say.

There are some reason’s before entering this profession
First is you must have the heart of a sped teacher , that has lots of patience and willingness to serve and teach a special child.

Second is you are willing to undergo different activities and face hindrances to come up with effective learning.

Third is many students chooses sped as their profession but few are called.

Fourth , being a sped teacher is really fun and you will benefit from it in terms of, it reduces fear of human differences accompanied by increased comfort and awareness, improvement and development of personal principles and it gives us warm and caring friendship towards our pupils.

We are all equal
by Nil Ann Rose Matucading

All of us are created by god with his likeness and image. God created us equally. So we must treat others equal too. For we have no right to discriminate others with regards only with their rank or level in the society. We should be fair to everybody. People who are highly seen in the society are most people who are very discriminating others. For as A human being we should be good all the times.

As a students of these institution, i should be open minded to all. I would not discriminate others. For I am only human beings. It feels good when there is something that you have done to others. Because it is good to give than to receive.Be good all the times for god is looking you.

We are all equal
by Azalea Sachi Abenio

We are all equal. God made us equally with his love. Each individual have their own given unique talents, skills, abilities and characteristics.

Somehow, some of us were born with disability. They have problems with their physical, mental and emotional, but they are not different from us, they are humans. Humans that made by GOD like us.

Some people doesn’t even know that GOD made them special and unique like us, but in different way. They treat them with no respect and sometimes they can’t even understand the situations why is it they have disabilities like that. Some of us are ignorant, they makes fun to them and treat and act them like a clown. Sometimes we forgot that they are still human beings, they need love, care, special attention, especially to those people around them (family, relatives, friends). Now, all we need to do is to accept and understand them with their unique disabilities. Give your special attention and shower your love upon them. As what I believe: Love those who are unique and special and you will be bless by GOD.

Stop Labeling
by Jamaica Campos

Each and everyone of us are born with the capacity to love and be love. Each and everyone of us are unique, we were born with different features and assets. cause. . .There could never be two man that are exactly alike. No one is perfect though each one of us have certain skills and talents though not everyone are given the chance and opportunity to hone there skills and excel in there own field. We should help them and give attention to these people to become productive and independent.

We are not suppose to limit there capabilities nor judge them because
these people are human beings they are born with heart and mind, physically they exist and are one of us, We are not suppose to criticize and look down on these people just because they are unfortunate to have a healthy mind and body because even if so they have they can feel and have emotions.

And so are we, all of us.Everyone of us wants to be loved and praised to belong in a group and be accepted there’s no one in this world wants to be treated badly. Especially for the people who have had disabilities they don’t need harsh and cruel things from us because
it is not there fault that they are disable.

Even doctors are trying not to name them such as to hurt them in every way they’re trying to not only limit there condition but in fact studying and searching for there strange and new condition so that we would know that there is more to them than what we see and think.

Why do I take up Special Education?
by Honeylou Perez Wabina

Special education is a very challenging profession where it cannot be bought with high salary.

I took up special education because I want to enter the world of my younger brother, he has hearing impairment. My desire to understand him awakes my innocent perception to take this kind of profession. I want to know the origin of this disability and the characteristics. To learn more sign language to have an effective way in communicating with him.

On the contrary, as the time goes by. I’ve realized that special education is very hard to deal with yet overwhelming. One of a kind because of the happiness I can get. I undergo special education because I love to teach special children. To nurture their minds as they developed their own skills. To be part of their development as they construct knowledge. To build a rapport and help them recognize the importance of things in their world despite of their incapacity.

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